Metro Magazine

FACT 2014

Magazine serving the bus and rail transit & motorcoach operations since 1904

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glossary 100 < m ETRO m AGAZINE FACT BOOK 2015 metro-magazine.com catenary: Overhead support holding wire that supplies power to a trolleybus or light rail vehicle. CDL: Commercial Driver's License. Required of all bus drivers. CFCs: Chlorofuorocarbons. Family of artifcially produced chemicals used as refrigerants, solvents and foam. CFR: Code of Federal Regulations. charter: Bus rented by a group for short period of time, usually a few hours to 24 hours. circulator: Bus or train serving a particular area, usually along a loop-shaped route, such as in a downtown, with connections to main traffc corridors. Class I intercity bus: Interstate passenger motor carrier with adjusted annual gross operating revenue of at least $5 million as defned by the Surface Transportation Board. Class I railroad: One with annual gross operating revenue of more than $250 million. clean diesel: Diesel fuel with sulfur content lower than 0.05%. CMAQ: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality program. Highway program money in TEA- 21 and ISTEA to reduce congestion and improve air quality. CNG: Compressed natural gas. commuter railroad: Rapid transit services that typically use portions of mainline railroad to carry passengers through a central city and its suburbs. consist: Railroad equipment on-track, such as a locomotive, train or single railcar. contract authority: Budget authority that allows obligations to be made in advance of appropriations. contraflow lane: Lane reserved for buses in which the direction of bus traffc is opposite the fow of traffc in the other lanes. crude oil: Mixture of hydrocarbons that exist in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs. Refned crude produces several fuels. crush load: Maximum vehicle passenger capacity in which there is little space between passengers. curb cut: Area at which a street curb has been cut and sloped so the sidewalk leads smoothly to street and crosswalk. curb weight: Vehicle weight without passengers. D DB: Design, build. Type of turnkey contracting. DBE: Disadvantaged Business Enterprise. A business identifed by the Small Business Administration as owned and controlled by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged people. DBOM: Design, build, operate, maintain. Type of turnkey contracting. deadhead: Movement of vehicles without passengers, often to and from a garage. demand-response: Transit service in which passengers request door-to-door or point-to- point service at a specifc time. Also called dial-a-ride. detectable warning: Raised dots on foors that A absolute block: A block into which no train may enter while it is occupied by another train. Access Board: Common name for the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Board, the federal agency that develops and enforces guidelines for accessible facilities. accessibility: Ability of vehicles and facilities to accommodate the disabled. ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act. Mandates specifc requirements for vehicles and facilities, such as stations and terminals, to accommodate the disabled. ADB: Advanced Design Bus. Model of transit bus introduced in mid-1970s. AFC: Automatic fare collection. air bleeding: Removal of air from a hydraulic system, such as brakes or power steering. allocation: Method for dividing federal funds among states when no apportionment formula exists for that money. alternative fuels: Those other than traditional gasoline and diesel. alternatives analysis: Analysis of engineering and fnancial feasibility for major transit projects required before federal funds can be allocated. Replaced in ISTEA with major investment studies (MIS). ANPRM: Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, e.g., from the National Highway Traffc Safety Administration. Also, ANPR, NPRM. APM: Automated peoplemover. apportionment: Method for dividing federal funds by formula. appropriation: Annual congressional process in which authorized funds are approved for release. It can be less than, but not exceed, authorized levels. articulated bus: Two-part, high-occupancy bus that bends in the middle like an accordion. aspect ratio: Percentage used to express the ratio of a tire's height to its width. Also called tire profle. authorization: Level of funding designated by Congress through legislation. automated guideway transit (AGT): Electric fxed-guideway transit operating without operators or other crew onboard. AVL: Automatic Vehicle Location system. Senses, at intervals, location of vehicles that carry special sensing equipment that sends signals to central control. B barrel: In petroleum, 42 gallons. base period: Between the morning and evening rush hours when transit is scheduled at regular intervals. Also called off-peak period. benefit assessment district: District around an intermodal facility where a portion of subsequent increases in tax revenue go directly to the transit district. beveled slope: Required under ADA for changes in level between one-quarter and one-half inch; with beveling, the slope is fatter than 1:2. bid sheet: Form that describes vehicle being purchased, unit price, total price and amount of bid. bi-fueled vehicle: One with two separate fuel systems designed to run on either a conventional or alternative fuel, using one fuel at a time. bi-gas: A synthetic gas made from coal. biodiesel: Vehicle fuel made from plant matter and commonly mixed with diesel in engines. block signal system: Also called fxed block. An older method of governing movement of trains along sections or "blocks" of track by use of wayside or block signals or cab signals. body-on-chassis vehicle: Standard chassis that has a separate body built and placed on it. Also called a cutaway. bogey: Assembly of two or more axles on a rail vehicle. brake retarder: Device that helps brake a vehicle without engaging the foundation brakes, extending brake life. bridge plate: Plate attached to a rail vehicle or platform that folds into position to form a ramp over the gap between the vehicle and platform. brokerage: Matching riders with a variety of transportation providers through centralized dispatching and administration. BRT: Bus rapid transit. BTS: Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Btu: British thermal unit. Measure of heat energy; one Btu raises the temperature of one pound of water one degree F at sea level. One Btu equals 252 calories. budget authority: Given by Congress to federal agencies to make money available for expenditure or obligation. buffer separation: Pavement that separates HOV lane from adjacent mixed-fow freeway lane. bus testing: Regulation that mandates that all buses bought with FTA funds pass testing at the facility in Altoona, Pa. bus turnout: Paved indentation at side of road so buses can pick up and discharge passengers. busway: Exclusive freeway lanes for buses and/ or carpools. Buy America: Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations requiring a certain percentage of vehicles' value to be manufactured in the U.S. Final assembly must also be performed in the U.S. C CAA: Clean Air Act. Federal legislation that sets air quality standards. Sometimes cited as CAAA. cable car: Vehicle operating on fxed rails with mixed street traffc, moved by cables below the street powered by engines at a central location away from the vehicles. CAFE: Corporate average fuel economy. California Air Resources Board: California state agency that writes air quality standards, the only agency with such powers outside the federal EPA. captive transit rider: One who must use public transportation. Opposite of choice rider.

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