Metro Magazine

FACT 2014

Magazine serving the bus and rail transit & motorcoach operations since 1904

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101 FACT BOOK 2015 m ETRO m AGAZINE > glossary hybrid bus: One that runs on hybrid propulsion. A vehicle power system that runs on electrical power supplied by an onboard generator powered by an internal combustion engine. I inclined plane: Electric passenger vehicle on steep grades propelled by moving cables attached to the vehicles. Also inclined railway. intercity bus: Large bus with front doors only, high-back seats and luggage storage for high- speed, long-distance trips. interlining: One bus company or transportation mode accepting the passengers of another. intermodal: Issues or activities involving or affecting more than one mode of transportation. Also known as multimodal. J jitney: Private vehicles usually run on a fxed route but not a fxed schedule. joint development: Projects undertaken by the public and private sectors. Usually refers to real estate projects and transit projects undertaken adjacent, above and/or below each other as a means of fnancing transit projects with minimal public expense. K kneeling bus: One in which the front end is lowered so disabled passengers can more easily get on and off. L layover time: Time built into a schedule between arrival and departure. layover zone: Designated stopover point at or near the end of the line. leaf springs: Flexible suspension devices composed of a number of stacked steel spring leaves held together with a central clamp. lifecycle procurement: Form of competitive procurement in which a contract is awarded based on both the initial capital cost and the cost of operation over the life of the vehicle. light-duty vehicle: Those with a GVWR of 8,500 lbs. or less. light rail: Electric rail transit with "light" volume of traffc capacity, as compared to "heavy" rail. May be on exclusive or shared right-of-way. Includes streetcars, trams and trolleycars. line-haul: Regular, intercity passenger bus or rail route. LNG: Liquefed natural gas. An alternative fuel. Natural gas that has been turned into a liquid by extreme cooling. load factor: Ratio of passengers actually carried versus vehicle passenger capacity. low-bid procurement: Type of competitive procurement in which the lowest bidder gets a contract. low-floor vehicle: One which has an entranceway and foor closer to the ground for easier access by those with disabilities. contrast with surrounding area to warn the blind of danger ahead. diesel fuel: Fuel composed of petroleum distillates that has a boiling point and specifc gravity higher than gasoline: Diesel 1 is used in high-speed diesel engines operated under wide variations of speed and load, such as city buses; diesel 2 is used in high- speed diesel engines operated under uniform speed and loads, such as locomotives and trucks. discretionary funds: Any funds whose distribution is not automatic, such as transit assistance. Opposite of entitlement. distillate fuel: No. 1 and No. 2 heating oil, diesel fuels and No. 4 fuel oil. Used mainly for space heating, on- and off-highway diesel engine fuel, locomotive fuel and electric power generation. dogleg ramp: Ramp with a turn in it. double-decker: Transit vehicles with a second story. double track: Two sets of track side by side, most often used for travel in opposite directions. downstream: In the direction of traffc. downtown peoplemover: Automated transport system that runs on a fxed guideway, usually in the central business district. One of the types of systems comprising automated guideway transit (AGT). dual-fuel system: Type of vehicle propulsion system that can run on more than one type of fuel, such as diesel and electricity or diesel and methanol, at the same time. dwell time: Scheduled time a vehicle is required to remain at a stop to pick up and discharge passengers. dynamic ridematch: System to form short-term (one-trip) carpools, often with jitneys. E E85: Fuel mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. earmark: Specifc amount set by Congress to be used for a project. ergonomics: The feld that studies the design of equipment to eliminate human fatigue and discomfort. Also known as human factors. ethanol: Grain alcohol, which is distilled from fermented organic matter. Can be used as a vehicle fuel. extra board: Operators who have no assigned run but are used to cover runs deliberately left open or runs left open because of absence of assigned operators. F fare elasticity: How ridership responds to fare increases or decreases. far-side stop: A bus stop immediately after an intersection. feeder route: Local bus service that moves passengers to express bus or rail stations. FFV: Flexible-fuel vehicle. Also, in American train folklore, fast fying vestibule. FHWA: Federal Highway Administration. Administers, plans, funds and regulates federal highway system. Part of the U.S. DOT. fixed guideway: System of vehicles that operates on its own guideway. fixed route: Transit services that run on regular, pre-scheduled routes, usually with bus schedules and designated bus stops. flexible funds: Federal money that can be used for transit, highways or other transportation projects, as decided by MPOs and state DOTs in small urban and rural areas. FMCSA: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Agency within the DOT that regulates bus and truck operational safety. FMCSR: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, issued by FMCSA. FMVSS: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, issued by NHTSA. formula funds: Federal funds distributed to transit agencies according to a formula (usually involving size of population) as set forth by law. FRA: Federal Railroad Administration. FTA: Federal Transit Administration. Administers, regulates and helps fund all public U.S. transportation. Part of U.S. DOT. fuel cell: Device that converts the chemical energy of fuel directly into electricity. G gasification: Process where biomass fuel is reacted with air and oxygen under pressure to produce gas. GAWR: Gross Axle Weight Rating. Specifed by vehicle manufacturer as the load carrying capacity of a single-axle system. gelation index: Oil's tendency to form gelled structures at cold temperatures. GIS: Geographical Information System. GPS: Global Positioning System. Satellite system used to locate objects, such as buses with special computer components, anywhere on Earth. grab bar: Bar mounted on wall to help disabled sit or stand. GVWR: Gross vehicle weight rating. Loaded weight, with passengers, of a vehicle. H headway: Time intervals between vehicles moving in the same direction on a particular route. heavy-duty vehicles: Those with GVWR of 8,500 lbs. or more. heavy rail: Electric rail transit system with exclusive right-of-way and high volume of passengers. Called subways, elevateds (or "els") or metros. high-speed rail: System in densely traveled corridors that runs at speeds of at least 124 mph. Highway Trust Fund: Aid fund administered by FHWA. Most funds for highway improvement are apportioned to states with formulas that give weight to population, area and mileage. horsepower: Measurement of engine's ability to perform work. One horsepower is the ability to lift 33,000 lbs. one foot in one minute. HOV: High occupancy vehicles. Those that can carry two or more passengers.

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