Metro Magazine

FACT 2014

Magazine serving the bus and rail transit & motorcoach operations since 1904

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102 < m ETRO m AGAZINE FACT BOOK 2015 glossary residual fuel oil: Topped crude of refneries, including No. 5 and No. 6, used for producing electricity, space heating and other purposes. revenue passenger trip: The number of fare- paying transit passengers with each person counted once per trip. Excludes transfer and non-revenue trips. reverse commute: Trips in direction opposite to main fow of traffc. reversible facility: HOV lane that can be reversed to match direction of peak travel. RFP: Request for proposal. rolling stock: Vehicles in a transit system, such as railcars and buses. route deviation service: Public transportation on a fxed route that may deviate from the route from time to time. Also point deviation. route miles: Total number of miles in a fxed- route transit system. RTAP: Rural Transit Assistance Program. FTA program offering aid for rural transit systems. RTIP: Regional Transportation Improvement Program. run cutting: Scheduling individual assignments or "runs" on a particular route. run pick: Selection by drivers of assignments. S SAFETEA-LU: The Safe, Accountable, Flexible and Effcient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users. The U.S. DOT's six- year $286 billion surface transportation legislation, signed into law on Aug. 10, 2005. Section 3: Former Federal Transit Act section that authorizes discretionary grants for capital projects. Section 18: Former Federal Transit Act section that authorizes capital and operating grants for non-urban areas. server: In queuing theory, that which performs the service and enables the queue to discharge. shear stability: Percentage of viscosity lost during engine operation. slack adjuster: Adjustable device on the brake chamber pushrod used to make up for brake shoe wear. smart card: Farecard system of plastic cards with a microchip containing fnancial and other data. stair nosing: Part of the step that extends outward from the vertical surface. station car: Very small vehicle for short-term rental at a station. stored-value card: Type of farecard in which an amount is stored and deducted automatically by machine when a ride is taken. strategic petroleum reserve: Government- controlled crude oil stored in the Gulf Coast. streetcar: Electric transit vehicle railway run with mixed traffc on streets. Usually single cars boarded from street level. Also called trams in Europe. NTI: National Transit Institute. At Rutgers University in New Brunswick, N.J. NTSB: National Transportation Safety Board. O obligation limit: Annual ceiling set by Congress on amount a state may obligate during a fscal year. OD study: Study of the origins and destinations of trips by vehicles or passengers. OEM: Original equipment manufacturer. operating costs: All costs involved with running a transit system; separate from capital costs. over-the-road coach: Large bus with luggage storage for intercity transportation. oxygenate: Prime ingredient of reformulated gasoline. The increased oxygen content promotes more complete combustion. ozone: Triatomic oxygen (O3). Forms naturally in the upper atmosphere where it protects Earth from ultraviolet rays from the sun. Also forms as a pollutant and respiratory irritant in lower atmosphere as a reaction from vehicle exhaust. P paddle: Schedule for each bus showing all trips in a day, including arrival and departure times. paratransit: Public transit service more fexible than fxed route. Includes carpooling, shared rides and, most commonly, special service for the elderly and disabled. particulate trap: Device on diesel buses to clean exhaust of particulate matter. passenger miles: Total number of miles traveled by passengers on a vehicle. (One bus with 10 passengers traveling 10 miles equals 100 passenger miles.) platooned flow: The grouping of moving pedestrians because of traffc impedance. PM10: Particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 micrometers. positive train separation: Moving-block signaling system that maintains and verifes separation both before and behind each train on a line. propane: Gas that is present in natural gas and also refned from crude oil. pulse point: Where two or more bus routes converge. pusher: Bus or train with rear engine. push-pull: Train with locomotives at both ends. R rapid rail: Synonym for heavy rail. rapid transit: Synonym for fxed guideway public transport (usually rail). regenerative braking: To recharge the battery back into the power system. registering fareboxes: Fare is counted and displayed for driver. replacement fuel: Any fuel that the secretary of energy determines is not petroleum and that would yield substantial energy security and environmental benefts. low-sulfur oil: Oil with 1% or less sulfur by weight. LPG: Liquefed petroleum gas. Mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons, mainly butane and propane, that can be changed into liquid by increasing pressure. LRT: Light rail transit. LRV: Light rail vehicle. M M85: Fuel mixture of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline. maglev: Magnetic levitation. Permits trains to move at high speeds just above a fxed guideway, propelled by magnetic force. match: State or local funds required by the federal government to complement federal money for a project. MAP-21: The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act was signed into law by President Obama on July 6, 2012. Funding surface transportation programs at over $105 billion for fscal years 2013 and 2014. MBE: Minority Business Enterprise. Business owned and controlled by people defned as minorities under U.S. DOT regulations for federally fnanced projects. medium-sized bus: Bus 29 feet to 34 feet long. methane: Light hydrocarbon that is the main component of marsh gas and natural gas. methanol: Light, fammable alcohol. Also called methyl alcohol. mineral oils: Fossil fuel oils. monorail: System in which vehicles run on a single fxed rail or beam. motorcoach: Over-the-road bus, usually with three axles and luggage storage. MPO: Metropolitan Planning Organization. Local group that selects projects, highways and transit to be given funds. multimodal: Same as intermodal. N neat fuel: One not diluted with other fuels. negotiated procurement: Method of public- sector procurement that allows purchasers and bidders to negotiate some portions of bid specifcations before best and fnal offers (BAFOs) are submitted. New Look Bus: Any bus manufactured between 1959 and 1978, with larger windows than "old look" buses. New Start: Discretionary federal funds for new or extended fxed guideway systems. NGV: Natural gas vehicle. NHTSA: National Highway Traffc Safety Administration. nonattainment area: U.S. region not attaining EPA standards for air pollutants. nonregistering fareboxes: The driver must check each time to see if proper fare was deposited. NOx: Oxides of nitrogen. A chief component of air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuel. These vehicle emissions are regulated by the EPA. NPRM: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (by the federal government).

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